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About Yatin

Yatin Batra
The author is graduated in Electronics & Telecommunication. During his studies, he has been involved with a significant number of projects ranging from programming and software engineering to telecommunications analysis. He works as a technical lead in the information technology sector where he is primarily involved with projects based on Java/J2EE technologies platform and novel UI technologies.

JavaScript Timing Events Example

Greetings readers, in this tutorial, we will explore the Timing Events in the javascript language.

1. Introduction

JavaScript is an object-oriented programming language that allows the client-side scripting to interact with a user and deliver the dynamic pages. Most web browsers including Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, Safari, Internet Explorer, Microsoft Edge, Opera, etc. support it. The JavaScript scripting language includes:

  • Declaring variables
  • Maintaining the retrieving values
  • Defining and invoking functions
  • Defining classes
  • Load and use external modules
  • Define event handlers
  • And much more ….

1.1 Advantages of JavaScript Language

The pros of using the JavaScript scripting language are:

  • JavaScript is easy to learn
  • It executes on client’s browser, so eliminates the server-side processing and be executed on any OS
  • JavaScript can be used with any type of web page e.g. PHP, ASP.NET, Perl etc
  • Web-page performance increases due to client-side execution
  • JavaScript code can be minified to decrease the loading time from the server
  • Many JavaScript-based application frameworks are available in the market to create Single page web applications e.g. AngularJS, ReactJS etc.

1.2 Disadvantages of JavaScript Language

The cons of using the JavaScript scripting language are:

  • Does not have any multi-threading or multi-processing capabilities
  • Does not allow the file reading and writing capabilities

1.3 Timing Events in JavaScript

  • In javascript, a piece of code can be executed at specified time intervals. This concept is called as Timing events
  • setInterval(function, delay): Executes a specified function repeatedly at specific time intervals. The function parameter specifies the function name and delay parameter specifies the time in milliseconds before calling the specified function
  • setTimeout(function, delay): Executes a specified function after waiting for a specified number of milliseconds. The function parameter specifies the function name and delay parameter specifies the time in milliseconds to wait before calling the specified function
  • clearInterval(timerVar): Stops the constant execution of a method set by the setInterval() method

2. JavaScript Timing Events Example

Here is a systematic guide for implementing this tutorial.

2.1 Tools Used

We are using Eclipse Kepler SR2, JDK 8 and Maven. Having said that, we have tested the code against JDK 1.7, and it works well.

2.2 Project Structure

Firstly, let us review the final project structure if you are confused about where you should create the corresponding files or folder later!

JavaScript Timing Events - Application Project Structure
Fig. 1: Application Project Structure

2.3 Project Creation

This section will show on how to create a Java-based Maven project with Eclipse. In Eclipse Ide, go to File -> New -> Maven Project.

JavaScript Timing Events - Maven Project
Fig. 2: Create a Maven Project

In the New Maven Project window, it will ask you to select the project location. By default, ‘Use default workspace location’ will be selected. Just click on the next button to proceed.

JavaScript Timing Events - Project Details
Fig. 3: Project Details

Select the ‘Maven Web App’ Archetype from the list of options and click next.

JavaScript Timing Events - Archetype Selection
Fig. 4: Archetype Selection

It will ask you to ‘Enter the group and the artifact id for the project’. We will input the details as shown in the below image. The version number will be by default: 0.0.1-SNAPSHOT.

JavaScript Timing Events - Archetype Parameters
Fig. 5: Archetype Parameters

Click on Finish and the creation of a maven project is completed. If you see, it has downloaded the maven dependencies and a pom.xml file will be created. It will have the following code:

pom.xml

<project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 http://maven.apache.org/xsd/maven-4.0.0.xsd">
	<modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>
	<groupId>com.javascript.timingevents</groupId>
	<artifactId>JavascriptTimingevents</artifactId>
	<version>0.0.1-SNAPSHOT</version>
	<packaging>war</packaging>
</project>

3. Application Building

Let us create an application to understand the basic building blocks of this tutorial.

3.1 Define the HTML

Let us write a simple index page in the JavascriptTimingevents/src/main/webapp/ folder. Add the following code to it.

index.jsp

<!-- JavaScript Timing Events Example -->
<div id="title">
	<h4 class="text-info">Definition</h4>
	<ul>
		<li>In javascript, <span class="text-underline">a piece of code can be executed at specified time intervals</span>. This concept is called as <mark>Timing events</mark>.</li>
		<li><code>setInterval(function, delay)</code>: Executes a specified function repeatedly at specific time intervals. The <code>function</code> parameter specifies the function name and <code>delay</code> parameter specifies the time in milliseconds before calling the specified function.</li>
		<li><code>setTimeout(function, delay)</code>: Executes a specified function after waiting for a specified number of milliseconds. The <code>function</code> parameter specifies the function name and <code>delay</code> parameter specifies the time in milliseconds to wait before calling the specified function.</li>
		<li><code>clearInterval(timerVar)</code>: Stops the constant execution of a method set by the <code>setInterval()</code> method.</li>
	</ul>
	<div> </div>

	<h4 class="text-info">Usage</h4>
	<div id="clock">
		<button type="button" class="btn btn-success btn-space" onclick="startClock();">Start Clock</button>
		<button type="button" class="btn btn-danger" onclick="stopClock();">Stop Clock</button>
	</div>
	<div> </div>

	<div id="result" class="display-4"></div>
</div>

3.2 Define the JavaScript function

Let us write a simple javascript function that will demonstrate the timing events in the javascript language. Add the following code to it.

JavaScript function

// JavaScript timing events.
var intervalId;

function startClock() {
	console.log("Clock started!");
	intervalId = setInterval(getCurrentDateTime, 1000);
}
function stopClock() {
	console.log("Clock stopped!");
	clearInterval(intervalId);
	document.getElementById("result").innerHTML = "";
}
function getCurrentDateTime() {
	var mydate = new Date();
	document.getElementById("result").innerHTML = mydate.toLocaleTimeString();
}

3.3 First application

Complete the above steps and save the file. Let us see the sample code snippet.

index.jsp

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">

<head>
    <title>Index page</title>
    <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=ISO-8859-1">
    <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://maxcdn.bootstrapcdn.com/bootstrap/4.2.1/css/bootstrap.min.css">
    <style>
        .btn-space {
            margin-right: 15px;
        }
        .text-underline {
            text-decoration: underline;
        }
    </style>
</head>

<body>
    <div class="container">
        <h2 align="center" class="text-muted">Timing Events in JavaScript</h2>
        <hr />

        <!-- JavaScript Timing Events Example -->
        <div id="title">
            <h4 class="text-info">Definition</h4>
            <ul>
                <li>In javascript, <span class="text-underline">a piece of code can be executed at specified time intervals</span>. This concept is called as <mark>Timing events</mark>.</li>
                <li><code>setInterval(function, delay)</code>: Executes a specified function repeatedly at specific time intervals. The <code>function</code> parameter specifies the function name and <code>delay</code> parameter specifies the time in milliseconds before calling the specified function.</li>
                <li><code>setTimeout(function, delay)</code>: Executes a specified function after waiting for a specified number of milliseconds. The <code>function</code> parameter specifies the function name and <code>delay</code> parameter specifies the time in milliseconds to wait before calling the specified function.</li>
                <li><code>clearInterval(timerVar)</code>: Stops the constant execution of a method set by the <code>setInterval()</code> method.</li>
            </ul>
            <div> </div>

            <h4 class="text-info">Usage</h4>
            <div id="clock">
                <button type="button" class="btn btn-success btn-space" onclick="startClock();">Start Clock</button>
                <button type="button" class="btn btn-danger" onclick="stopClock();">Stop Clock</button>
            </div>
            <div> </div>

            <div id="result" class="display-4"></div>
        </div>
    </div>
    <script>
        // JavaScript timing events.
        var intervalId;

        function startClock() {
            console.log("Clock started!");
            intervalId = setInterval(getCurrentDateTime, 1000);
        }
        function stopClock() {
            console.log("Clock stopped!");
            clearInterval(intervalId);
            document.getElementById("result").innerHTML = "";
        }
        function getCurrentDateTime() {
            var mydate = new Date();
            document.getElementById("result").innerHTML = mydate.toLocaleTimeString();
        }
    </script>
</body>

</html>

4. Run the Application

As we are ready for all the changes, let us compile the project and deploy the application on the Tomcat7 server. To deploy the application on Tomat7, right-click on the project and navigate to Run as -> Run on Server.

JavaScript Timing Events - Deploy Application on Tomcat
Fig. 6: How to Deploy Application on Tomcat

Tomcat will deploy the application in its web-apps folder and shall start its execution to deploy the project so that we can go ahead and test it in the browser.

5. Project Demo

Open your favorite browser and hit the following URL to display the application’s index page as shown in Fig. 7.

http://localhost:8082/JavascriptTimingevents/

Server name (localhost) and port (8082) may vary as per your Tomcat configuration.

JavaScript Timing Events - Index page
Fig. 7: Index page

Users can click the buttons to understand the implementation of timing events in the javascript language. That is all for this tutorial and I hope the article served you whatever you were looking for. Happy learning and do not forget to share.

6. Conclusion

In this section, developers learned how to create a simple application with the JavaScript language. Developers can download the sample application as an Eclipse project in the Downloads section.

7. Download the Eclipse Project

This was a beginner’s tutorial to explore the timing events in the javascript language.

Download
You can download the full source code of this example here: JavaScript Timing Events Example
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