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Python: Learning about defaultdict’s handling of missing keys

While reading the scikit-learn code I came across a bit of code that I didn’t understand for a while but in retrospect is quite neat. This is the code snippet that intrigued me: vocabulary = defaultdict() vocabulary.default_factory = vocabulary.__len__ Let’s quickly see how it works by adapting an example from scikit-learn: >>> from collections import defaultdict >>> vocabulary = defaultdict() ...

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Python: Combinations of values on and off

In my continued exploration of Kaggle’s Spooky Authors competition, I wanted to run a GridSearch turning on and off different classifiers to work out the best combination. I therefore needed to generate combinations of 1s and 0s enabling different classifiers. e.g. if we had 3 classifiers we’d generate these combinations 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 ...

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scikit-learn: Creating a matrix of named entity counts

I’ve been trying to improve my score on Kaggle’s Spooky Author Identification competition, and my latest idea was building a model which used named entities extracted using the polyglot NLP library. We’ll start by learning how to extract entities form a sentence using polyglot which isn’t too tricky: >>> from polyglot.text import Text >>> doc = "My name is David ...

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Python: polyglot – ModuleNotFoundError: No module named ‘icu’

I wanted to use the polyglot NLP library that my colleague Will Lyon mentioned in his analysis of Russian Twitter Trolls but had installation problems which I thought I’d share in case anyone else experiences the same issues. I started by trying to install polyglot: $ pip install polyglot   ImportError: No module named 'icu' Hmmm I’m not sure what ...

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Python 3: TypeError: unsupported format string passed to numpy.ndarray.__format__

This post explains how to work around a change in how Python string formatting works for numpy arrays between Python 2 and Python 3. I’ve been going through Kevin Markham‘s scikit-learn Jupyter notebooks and ran into a problem on the Cross Validation one, which was throwing this error when attempting to print the KFold example: Iteration Training set observations Testing ...

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NLP Tutorial Using Python NLTK (Simple Examples)

In this post, we will talk about natural language processing (NLP) using Python. This NLP tutorial will use Python NLTK library. NLTK is a popular Python library which is used for NLP. So what is NLP? and what are the benefits of learning NLP What is NLP? Simply and in short, natural language processing (NLP) is about developing applications and ...

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Using gRPC in Python

gRPC is an HTTP/2-based Remote Procedure Call (RPC) framework that uses protocol buffers (protobuf) as the underlying data serialization framework. It is an alternative to other language-neutral RPC frameworks such as Apache Thrift and Apache Arvo. In the first part of this series on using gRPC in Python, we will implement a gRPC service in Python. Our gRPC service will ...

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How to create a Google Drive App in Flask

This is the first in a series of articles for web programmers that explain in detail about using the Google Drive API in your web applications to access files/folders on behalf of the users of your application. In my last project, I had to develop a python flask app for my users that required to access the files stored in ...

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Flask Recipe – RESTful CRUD using sqlalchemy

RESTful apps are a thing these days. When your application’s userbase gets quite large and the client could vary from a laptop to an android device to an iOS device, it pays to keep the backend code separate and use the server only for making RESTful calls using HTTP methods that pertain to basic OLTP transactions: SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE and ...

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