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Python

Python Map Example

In this tutorial, by using python 3.4, we’ll talk about map functions. Strictly speaking, a map function, is a function that accepts a function and an array as arguments, and applies the given function to each element of the array, returning another array with the result of each transformation. So, in other words, a map applies a transformation to each ...

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Python Sockets Example

In this tutorial, we’ll talk about INET, STREAM sockets. We’ll talk about what sockets are, and learn how to work with blocking and non-blocking sockets. First things first, we’ll make a distinction between a “client” socket (endpoint of a conversation), and a “server” socket (switchboard operator). Your client (e.g. your browser) uses only client sockets, and your server uses both ...

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Python Dictionary Example

Dictionaries in Python are data structures that optimize element lookups by associating keys to values. You could say that dictionaries are arrays of (key, value) pairs. 1. Define Their syntax is pretty familiar to us, web developers, since its exactly the same as JSON’s. An object starts and ends in curly braces, each pair is separated by a comma, and ...

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Python Django Tutorial

Django is an open source web framework which solves most common problems of a web application development. It has some very useful features like an auto generated admin page and an ORM. It’s a high-level framework, so we just need to focus on the actual core logic of our business and let Django take care of mappings, filters and such. ...

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Python Logging Example

Logging is a process through which an application pushes strings to a handler. That string should be a line containing information about the piece of code from which it was sent and the context in that moment. It is a feature every application must have, and it’s as important as any other functionality you add to the application in question. ...

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How To Deadlock Your Python With getaddrinfo

What happens if you run this code? import os import socket import threading def lookup(): socket.getaddrinfo('python.org', 80) t = threading.Thread(target=lookup) t.start() if os.fork(): # Parent waits for child. os.wait() else: # Child hangs here. socket.getaddrinfo('mongodb.org', 80) On Linux, it completes in milliseconds. On Mac, it usually hangs. Why? Journey To The Center Of The Interpreter Anna Herlihy and I tackled ...

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Python Threading / Concurrency Example

Threads are processes which run in parallel to other threads. In a utopian scenario, if you split a big process in 2 threads, these threads will run in parallel so it would take half the time. This is not true in most cases. Using CPython, there is a mutex that prevents multiple native threads from executing Python byte codes at ...

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Python: Squashing ‘duplicate’ pairs together

As part of a data cleaning pipeline I had pairs of ids of duplicate addresses that I wanted to group together. I couldn’t work out how to solve the problem immediately so I simplified the problem into pairs of letters i.e. A B (A is the same as B) B C (B is the same as C) C D ... ...

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Python Decorator Tutorial

Sometimes, we encounter problems that require us to extend the behavior of a function, but we don’t want to change its implementation. Some of those problems could be: logging spent time, caching, validating parameters, etc. All these solutions are often needed in more than one function: you often need to log the spent time of every http connection; you often ...

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