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About Yatin

Yatin Batra
The author is graduated in Electronics & Telecommunication. During his studies, he has been involved with a significant number of projects ranging from programming and software engineering to telecommunications analysis. He works as a technical lead in the information technology sector where he is primarily involved with projects based on Java/J2EE technologies platform and novel UI technologies.

Angular.js Step by Step Beginner Tutorial

Hello readers, in this basic example, developers will learn what AngularJS is and how to start writing the code using the AngularJS framework.

1. Introduction

1.1 What is AngularJS?

AngularJS is a JavaScript MVC or Model-View-Controller framework developed by Google that lets developers build well structured, easily testable, and maintainable front-end applications. Before we start with creating an actual application using AngularJS, let us see what the actual parts of an AngularJS application are.

1.1.1 Templates

In AngularJS, a template is an HTML with additional markups. AngularJS library compiles the templates and renders the resultant HTML page.

1.1.2 Directives

Directives are the markers (i.e. attributes) on a DOM element that tell AngularJS to attach a specific behavior to that DOM element or even transform the DOM element and its children. Most of the directives in AngularJS library starts with the ng. The directives consist of the following three parts:

  • ng-app: The ng-app directive is a starting point. If the AngularJS framework finds the ng-app directive anywhere in the HTML document, it bootstraps (i.e. initializes) itself and compiles the HTML template
  • ng-model: The ng-model directive binds an HTML element to a property on the $scope object. It also binds the values of AngularJS application data to the HTML input controls
  • ng-bind: The ng-bind directive binds the AngularJS application data to the HTML tags

1.1.3 Expressions

An expression is like a JavaScript code which is usually wrapped inside the double curly braces such as {{ expression }}. AngularJS library evaluates the expression and produces a result.

The following table lists all the important concepts in AngularJS library.

TemplateAn HTML with additional markups.
DirectivesExtend the HTML with the custom attributes (or markers) and elements.
ModelIt is the data shown to the user in the view with which the user interacts.
ScopeA Scope is a context where the model is stored so that controllers, directives, and expressions can access it.
ExpressionsAn expression executes the JavaScript code inside the double curly braces such as {{ expression }}.
CompilerThe Compiler parses the template and instantiates the directives and expressions.
FilterA Filter formats the value of an expression for display to the user.
Data BindingThis sync the data between the model and the view.
ControllerIt maintains the application data and business logic.
ModuleIt is a container for different parts of an application including the controllers, services, filters, and directives which configures the Injector.
ServiceA Service is reusable business logic which is independent of the views.

1.2 Why should we use AngularJS?

Using the Model-View-Controller architecture, the framework separates a web application into a simple and yet manageable structure, which comprises of “views”, “models” and “controllers”. The AngularJS library provides the in-build directives (or attributes) to extend the HTML inside a web page. When developers attach these directives to the HTML elements and attributes, it creates a dynamic web-page with very little coding.

These new APIs make a developer life easier, really! But it would be difficult for a beginner to understand this without an example. Therefore, let us create the first application using the AngularJS library.

2. Angular.js Step-by-Step Beginner Example

Here is a step-by-step guide for implementing the Servlet framework in Java.

2.1 Tools Used

We are using Eclipse Kepler SR2, JDK 8 and Maven. Having said that, we have tested the code against JDK 1.7 and it works well.

2.2 Project Structure

Firstly, let’s review the final project structure, in case you are confused about where you should create the corresponding files or folder later!

Fig. 1: Application Project Structure

Fig. 1: Application Project Structure

2.3 Project Creation

This section will demonstrate on how to create a Java-based Maven project with Eclipse. In Eclipse Ide, go to File -> New -> Maven Project.

Fig. 2: Create Maven Project

Fig. 2: Create Maven Project

In the New Maven Project window, it will ask you to select project location. By default, ‘Use default workspace location’ will be selected. Just click on next button to proceed.

Fig. 3: Project Details

Fig. 3: Project Details

Select the ‘Maven Web App’ Archetype from the list of options and click next.

Fig. 4: Archetype Selection

Fig. 4: Archetype Selection

It will ask you to ‘Enter the group and the artifact id for the project’. We will input the details as shown in the below image. The version number will be by default: 0.0.1-SNAPSHOT.

Fig. 5: Archetype Parameters

Fig. 5: Archetype Parameters

Click on Finish and the creation of a maven project is completed. If you observe, it has downloaded the maven dependencies and a pom.xml file will be created. It will have the following code:


<project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 http://maven.apache.org/xsd/maven-4.0.0.xsd">

Let’s start building the application!

3. Application Building

Let’s create a basic welcome application to understand the basic building blocks of AngularJS library.

3.1 Load the AngularJS framework

Since it is a pure JavaScript framework, so we should add its reference using the <script> tag.

<script type="text/javascript" src="resource/js/angular_v1.6.0.js"></script>

3.2 Define the AngularJS application

Next, we will define the AngularJS application using <ng-app> directive.

<div ng-app = "">

3.3 Define a Model

In this step, we’ll define a model <name> using <ng-model> directive.

<p>Enter your Name: <input type="text" ng-model="user_name"></p>

3.4 Bind the Model

<span id="greetingsText" class="cssStyling">Welcome <span ng-bind = "user_name"></span> !!</span>

3.5 First AngularJS Application

Complete all the above steps and save the file. Let’s see the sample code snippet.


<!DOCTYPE html>
      <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8">
      <title>AngularJS First Application</title>
      <!-- AngularJs Javascript File -->
      <script type="text/javascript" src="resource/js/angular_v1.6.0.js"></script>
      <!-- CSS Styling -->
      <style type="text/css">
         .cssStyling {
         	color: green;
         	font-size: larger;
         	text-transform: capitalize;   			 	
      <h1>AngularJS First Application</h1>
      <div ng-app="">
         	Enter your name: <input type="text" ng-model="user_name">
         	<span id="greetingsText" class="cssStyling">Welcome <span ng-bind = "user_name"></span> !!</span>

4. Run the Application

As we are ready for all the changes, let us compile the project and deploy the application on the Tomcat7 server. To deploy the application on Tomat7, right-click on the project and navigate to Run as -> Run on Server.

Fig. 6: How to Deploy Application on Tomcat

Fig. 6: How to Deploy Application on Tomcat

Tomcat will deploy the application in its web-apps folder and shall start its execution to deploy the project so that we can go ahead and test it in the browser.

5. Project Demo

Open your favorite browser and hit the following URL. The output page (i.e. the welcome form) will be displayed.


Server name (localhost) and port (8082) may vary as per your Tomcat configuration. Developers can debug the example and see what happens after every step. Enjoy!

Fig. 7: Welcome Page

Fig. 7: Welcome Page

Once a user enters the name of the person, a welcome message will be immediately printed on the screen.

Fig. 8: Welcome Message

Fig. 8: Welcome Message

That’s all for this post. Happy Learning!!

6. Conclusion

In this section, developers learned how to create a simple application using the AngularJS library. Developers can download the sample application as an Eclipse project in the Downloads section. I hope this article served you with whatever developers were looking for.

7. Download the Eclipse Project

This was an example of AngularJS library for the beginners.

You can download the full source code of this example here: AngularJsEx
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